Galaxy Crash
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More Computer Modeling of Colliding Galaxies:

Here are several sites which show state-of-the-art computer models of interacting galaxies, typically done on large workstations or supercomputers. Unlike the Galaxy Crash models, the modeling below takes into account the self-gravity of the galaxies, and, in many cases, the hydrodynamic modeling of their interstellar gas. If you follow the links below you will find many images and animations of these computer models.


Observations of Colliding Galaxies:




Technical Bibliography:


The subject of galaxy interactions covers such a wide range of topics, and is so actively being studied, that it is impossible to give a comprehensive literature review. Instead, I have attempted to outline some of the original material in the field, while also giving more recent updates and reviews on the broader subjects.

  • Recent reviews on the subject of galaxy interactions include:
    • Barnes, J., Hernquist, L., 1992, Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 30, 705
    • Kennicutt, R.C., Schweizer, F., Barnes, J.E., 1998, Galaxies: Interactions and Induced Star Formation (Berlin: Springer)

  • Some of the first detailed N-body calculations of interacting galaxies were done by while more modern calculations can be found in

  • The detailed properties of ULIRG galaxies, and the connection between mergers, ULIRGs, and quasars was first described in and have been recently reviewed in
    • Sanders, D.B., Mirabel, I.F. 1996, Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 34, 749

  • The theoretical motivation behind the merger hypothesis for elliptical galaxy formation can be found in
    • Toomre, A. 1977, in The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, eds. Tinsley, B.M., and Larson, R.B. (New Haven:Yale Observatory Press), 401
    while some of the first observational groundwork is in

  • The accretion model for the Galactic halo was originally proposed by while a recent review of observational and theoretical work on the structure and formation of the halo is given in
    • Majewski, S.R. 1996, Annual Reviews of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 34, 749

  • Models of satellite infall can be found in